CYTOSOLVE CASE STUDY: Nuskin

nuskinHeadache, joint pain and muscle soreness are some of the most common age-associated inflictions. A formulation from Nu Skin USA was analyzed to determine the efficacy of individual and combination of five (5) ingredients on reducing headache, joint pain and muscle soreness at the molecular level. In this study, a systematic literature review is conducted to identify the molecular pathways affecting headache, joint pain and muscle soreness. The molecular pathways of headache, joint pain and muscle soreness are converted to individual mathematical models; each model is validated; and, the plurality of models is integrated with the CytoSolve® computational systems biology platform to produce an integrative model of headache, joint pain and muscle soreness, respectively. CytoSolve provides for the dynamic integration of molecular pathway models, in silico, to understand synergistic effects of multi-ingredient dietary supplements on molecular pathways of biological processes. Five individual ingredients from Nu Skin formulation are tested in silico using the CytoSolve model to evaluate efficacy. Combination of the five ingredients, from the current dosage in the formulation, is also tested in silico. The results from the systematic review revealed three major molecular pathway systems that govern headache: 1) Arachidonic acid pathway; 2) Bradykinin induced TRPV1 phosphorylation pathway; and, 3) Substance P release pathway. The combination of ingredients mitigated headache by downregulating the expression of COX-2 and INOS; reducing the production of PGE2; and, decreasing release of substance P. The results from the systematic review revealed three major molecular pathway systems that govern joint pain: 1) Arachidonic acid pathway; and 2) Bradykinin induced COX-2 production pathway. The combination of ingredients mitigated joint pain by decreasing COX-2 expression and reducing PGE2 production. The results from the systematic review revealed three major molecular pathway systems that govern muscle soreness: 1) Arachidonic acid pathway; 2) Bradykinin induced PKC activation pathway; 3) Oxidative stress pathway. he combination of ingredients mitigated muscle soreness by reducing the production of PGE2, reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting bradykinin induced PKC activation.

CYTOSOLVE CASE STUDY: Anagenix

anagenixClinical and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effect of Actazin™ and Livaux™, wholefood-based nutritional supplement from Anagenix Group derived from green and gold kiwifruit, respectively, on digestive health. However, the molecular mechanistic understanding of the effect of ingredients of Actazin™ and Livaux™, individually and in combination needs to be fully understood. In this study, a systematic literature review is conducted to identify the molecular pathways affecting gut motility. The molecular pathways of gut motility are converted to individual mathematical models; each model is validated; and, the plurality of models are integrated with the CytoSolve® computational systems biology platform to produce an integrative model of gut motility. CytoSolve provides for the dynamic integration of molecular pathway models, in silico (through mathematical modeling on a computer), to understand synergistic effects of multi-ingredient dietary supplements on molecular pathways of biological processes. Combination of all the bioactive molecules at the recommended dose levels is tested in silico. The results from the systematic review reveal three major biological systems that govern gut motility: 1) Inflammation; 2) Mucus production; and, 3) Fecal bulking. The results from the CytoSolve in silico modeling demonstrate that Actazin™ bioactive compounds synergistically enhance gut motility by: 1) reducing inflammation; 2) increasing mucus production; and, 3) increasing expression of PYY and GLP-1 which in turn increase the gut transit time and facilitate fecal bulking.